Studying traits human animals find it humiliating

Apart from the cognitive testing session, participants engaged in nonvigorous activities such as reading and watching TV. Impairment of cognitive performance in the experimental conditions was assessed by calculating the difference in the PVT measures e. Unpaired t tests compared the mean speed of the two groups during baseline, sleep deprivation, sleep restriction, and recovery. Scan duration was min with radiotracer injection as bolus followed by a constant infusion with a kbol amount of bolus equaling an infusion of a certain length value of 63 min.

Repeated arterialized venous blood sampling was scheduled at 2, 5, and 10 min, and every 10 min until 80 min and every 5 min subsequently. From minute 80 to of the radiotracer infusion, 40 g of ethanol in 1 L saline or solely 1 L saline solution as placebo was infused. To assess the subjective effects of the infusion, we used a German version of the BAES 55 with a slightly modified instruction that did not imply that alcohol was consumed.

Subjects were asked to rate how they felt right before the ethanol infusion and at the end of the PET scan. We thank all our partners for collaboration. Author contributions: E. This article contains supporting information online at www. Published under the PNAS license. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail.

We do not capture any email address. Skip to main content. Eva-Maria Elmenhorst. Significance Modern work environments favor working around the clock, at the cost of insufficient sleep and increased risk for fatigue-related human error. Abstract Trait-like differences in cognitive performance after sleep loss put some individuals more at risk than others, the basis of such disparities remaining largely unknown. Results Alcohol intake, total sleep deprivation, and 4 d of sleep restriction each resulted in impairment of sustained attention, measured as the deviation from baseline in a psychomotor vigilance task PVT Fig.

View this table: View inline View popup. Table 1. Table 2.

6 Animals with Oddly Human Behavior

Discussion The present study shows that cognitive performance impairments due to ethanol intake and sleep loss correlate strongly across individuals, indicating the presence of an underlying trait vulnerability. Study design. Study 1. Total sleep deprivation. Study 2. Partial sleep deprivation.

Alcohol administration. Performance measurements. Email: eva-maria.

The human league: what separates us from other animals?

The authors declare no conflict of interest. Prog Brain Res : — OpenUrl PubMed. Sleep Med Rev 12 : — Barger LK , et al. N Engl J Med : — Vejvoda M , et al. J Sleep Res 23 : — Bundesgesundheitsblatt 56 : — Am J Epidemiol : — Watson NF , et al. Sleep 38 : — Cohen DA , et al.

Sci Transl Med 2 : 14ra3. Sleep 35 : — Belenky G , et al. Elmenhorst D , et al. Sleep Med 10 : — Van Dongen HP Comparison of mathematical model predictions to experimental data of fatigue and performance. Ind Health 47 : — Sleep 27 : — Kuna ST , et al. Tkachenko O , Dinges DF Interindividual variability in neurobehavioral response to sleep loss: A comprehensive review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 89 : 29 — Bartholow BD , et al. Biol Psychol 64 : — Alcohol Clin Exp Res 37 : — Neuropsychopharmacology 7 : — Dawson D , Reid K Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment.

Nature : Clark M , Dar MS In vitro autoradiographic evidence for adenosine modulation of ethanol-induced motor disturbances in rats. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl 1 : — Brain Res : 80 — Paul S , et al.

The human league: what separates us from other animals? | Books | The Guardian

J Nucl Med 52 : — Alcohol 49 : — Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34 : — J Neurosci 27 : — Alcohol 9 : — J Sleep Res 9 : — Lee J , Manousakis J , Fielding J , Anderson C Alcohol and sleep restriction combined reduces vigilant attention, whereas sleep restriction alone enhances distractibility. Van Dongen HP , Maislin G , Mullington JM , Dinges DF The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: Dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation.

According to the AST, it does so by constructing an attention schema—a constantly updated set of information that describes what covert attention is doing moment-by-moment and what its consequences are. Consider an unlikely thought experiment. It exists without substance. It moves around from one set of items to another.

Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature

When that mysterious process in me grasps hold of something, it allows me to understand, to remember, and to respond. The crocodile would be wrong, of course. It has a physical basis, but that physical basis lies in the microscopic details of neurons, synapses, and signals. The brain has no need to know those details. The attention schema is therefore strategically vague. It depicts covert attention in a physically incoherent way, as a non-physical essence.

And this, according to the theory, is the origin of consciousness. We say we have consciousness because deep in the brain, something quite primitive is computing that semi-magical self-description. Fins become feet. Gill arches become jaws. And self-models become models of others. But once the basic mechanism was in place, according to the theory, it was further adapted to model the attentional states of others, to allow for social prediction. Not only could the brain attribute consciousness to itself, it began to attribute consciousness to others.

Some of the more complex examples are limited to humans and apes. If a basic ability to attribute awareness to others is present in mammals and in birds, then it may have an origin in their common ancestor, the reptiles. Crocodiles may not be the most socially complex creatures on earth, but they live in large communities, care for their young, and can make loyal if somewhat dangerous pets. If AST is correct, million years of reptilian, avian, and mammalian evolution have allowed the self-model and the social model to evolve in tandem, each influencing the other.

We understand other people by projecting ourselves onto them. But we also understand ourselves by considering the way other people might see us. Data from my own lab suggests that the cortical networks in the human brain that allow us to attribute consciousness to others overlap extensively with the networks that construct our own sense of consciousness.

Language is perhaps the most recent big leap in the evolution of consciousness.

Nobody knows when human language first evolved. Certainly we had it by 70 thousand years ago when people began to disperse around the world, since all dispersed groups have a sophisticated language.

New Research In

The relationship between language and consciousness is often debated, but we can be sure of at least this much: once we developed language, we could talk about consciousness and compare notes. So is she. So is he.

So is that damn river that just tried to wipe out my village. Maybe partly because of language and culture, humans have a hair-trigger tendency to attribute consciousness to everything around us. But even though on the surface they may seem vastly different, they have more in common than most would think. Log in No account?

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